Cost Effective Design and Case Studies

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The primary objective was to minimize modifications to existing structures, reducing construction period and reducing land acquisition and resettlement. The principles applied to achieve this are given below.

Dam based schemes especially in Karnataka state typically required as per  the original proposals extensive excavation through rock in order to construct entirely new intakes and tunnels to by-pass the sluices in the existing dams.  In the new layouts, the existing sluices are fitted with a trash rack, gate or stoplog,, hoists and a  bellmouth made of RCC. Steel  penstocks are to be anchored in the existing sluices to which the turbines are fixed. Conical straight draft tubes convey the water to a rectangular pool from which the existing canal starts. The revised proposals for Brindavan Scheme illustrate this.

Brindavan Scheme

Single Canal Drop Based Schemes: The revised layout is intended to eliminate the use of a separate by-pass or diversion channel. The existing canal would be used as the water conveyance structure. The equipment would be installed immediately downstream of the canal drop and a simple by pass arrangement would be incorporated at the intake structure. The revised proposals for Kilara scheme illustrate this.

Kilara Scheme

Irrigation Barrage and Diversion Weir Based Schemes: As there are no sluices, the layouts were designed especially with regard to realigning water conductor system so that they would not cause any permanent acquisition or waste of agricultural land. The revised proposals for Kuttiyadi scheme illustrate this.

Kuttiyadi Scheme

Multiple Canal Drop Based Schemes: For such schemes, the main goal was to simplify construction requirements. In general there are no major differences between the original and revised designs except where feasible to realign the channel to reduce the length of the water conveyance structures and to use closed conduits to obviate the need to permanently destroy agricultural land. Bascule gates or crest gates would be installed slightly upstream of the canal drop to control the water level in the canal and an intake which would be fitted with a trash rack and a stoplog. To maintain flows in the canal when the powerhouse is shout down, automatically regulated crest gates would be provided at the first drop structure. The revised proposals for Guntur scheme illustrate this.

Guntur Scheme

Using Closed Conduits: The revised designs were made such that none would cause negative impact on the environment or lead to the resettlement of nearby communities. For example closed buried conduits were used so that no land would need to be permanently acquired. This would also speed up obtaining clearances from environmental agencies. The revised proposals for Maddur scheme illustrate this.

Maddur Scheme

Electrical System: Redundancies in electrical switching, protection and controls in the original designs by SEBs were eliminated and a set of eighteen standardized single line diagrams were developed for the fifty schemes. Grid tie arrangements were designed to connect the mini hydro to a nearby 11/33kV substation.

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